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Flora
 

Gibraltar Flora

Taxonomic list of the Gibraltar flora compiled by Leslie Linares (plants (at) gonhs.org) GONHS Botanical Section Co-ordinator.  The list is based on the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) database.

This is the latest, updated checklist of the Gibraltar flora and is based on field data collected by members of GONHS. Illustrations and text for many of these species can be found in the book "The Flowers of Gibraltar".  An annotated checklist will shortly be available as a pdf.

FLOWERS OF GIBRALTAR

 

Class: Selaginellopsida

Order: Selaginellales


SELAGINELLACEAE

Selaginella denticulata (Mediterranean clubmoss)

 

Class: Pteridopsida

 

Order: Pteridales

ADIANTACEAE

Adiantum capillus-veneris (Maidenhair fern)

Cheilanthes acrosticha (Fragrant or Scented cheilanthes)
Cheilanthes vellea (Scaly cheilanthes)

PTERIDACEAE

Anogramma leptophylla (Jersey fern; Annual gymnogram)

 

Order: Polypodiales

DAVALLIACEAE

Davallia canariensis (Canary Islands hare's foot fern)

ASPLENIACEAE

Asplenium billotii (Blunt-leaved or Lanceolate spleenwort)
Asplenium ceterach (Rusty-back fern)
Asplenium onopteris (Acute-leaved or Western black spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens (Maidenhair spleenwort)

POLYPODIACEAE

Polypodium cambricum (Southern polypody)

 

Class: Pinopsida

 

Order: Pinales

PINACEAE

Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine)
Pinus pinea (Stone or Umbrella pine)

 

Class: Gnetopsida

 

Order: Ephedrales

EPHEDRACEAE

Ephedra fragilis subsp. fragilis (Joint-pine)

 

Class: Magnoliopsida

 

Order: Fagales

FAGACEAE

Quercus coccifera (Kermes or Holly oak)
Quercus rotundifolia (Holm Oak)

 

Order: Rosales

ULMACEAE

Celtis australis (Nettle tree)

MORACEAE

Ficus carica (Fig)

URTICACEAE

Parietaria judaica (Pellitory-of-the-wall)
Parietaria lusitanica subsp. lusitanica (Southern pellitory-of-the-wall)
Parietaria mauritanica (Moroccan pellitory-of-the-wall)
Urtica membranacea (Nettle)

ROSACEAE

Crataegus monogyna subsp. brevispina (Hawthorn)
Rosa sempervirens (Evergreen rose)
Rubus ulmifolius (Bramble)
Sanguisorba minor subsp. magnolii (Mediterranean salad burnet)

RHAMNACEAE

Frangula alnus (Alder buckthorn)

Rhamnus alaternus (Mediterranean buckthorn)
Rhamnus lycioides subsp. oleoides (Spiny buckthorn)

 

Order: Santalales

SANTALACEAE

Osyris quadripartita (Osyris)
Thesium humile (Lesser bastard toadflax)

 

Order: Piperales

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE

Aristolochia baetica (Pipe vine; Dutchman’s pipe)

 

Order: Caryophyllales

POLYGONACEAE

Emex spinosa (Emex)
Polygonum aviculare (Knotgrass)
Polygonum equisetiforme (Slender knotgrass)
Rumex bucephalophorus (Horned dock)
Rumex conglomeratus (Sharp or clustered dock)
Rumex crispus (Curled dock)
Rumex intermedius (Intermediate dock)

Rumex pulcher subsp. divaricatus(Fiddle dock)
Rumex scutatus subsp. induratus (Shield dock)

AMARANTHACEAE

Achyranthes sicula (Achyranthes)
Amaranthus blitoides (Spreading amaranth)
Amaranthus lividus (Black amaranth)
Amaranthus muricatus (Narrow-leaved amaranth)
Arthrocnemum fruticosum
(Shrubby glasswort; Marsh samphire)
Atriplex halimus (Shrubby orache)
Atriplex patula (Common orache)
Atriplex prostrata (Hastate or Spear-leaved orache)
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (Sea beet)
Chenopodium album subsp. album (Fat hen)
Chenopodium ambrosioides (Aromatic goosefoot)
Chenopodium murale (Nettle-leaved goosefoot)
Chenopodium opulifolium (Grey goosefoot)
Halimione portulacoides (Sea purslane)
Salsola kali subsp kali (Prickly saltwort)
Suaeda vera (Shrubby seablite)

 

NYCTAGINACEAE

Mirabilis jalapa (Four o’clock plant; Marvel of Peru)

PHYTOLACCACEAE

Phytolacca americana (Virginian or American pokeweed)
Phytolacca dioica (Ombu)

AIZOACEAE

Carpobrotus edulis x acinaciformis (Hottentot fig)
Disphyma crassifolium (Disphyma)
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Ice plant)
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum (Lesser ice plant)

PORTULACACEAE

Portulaca oleracea subsp. nitida (Purslane)

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Arenaria leptoclados (Slender sandwort)
Cerastium gibraltaricum (Gibraltar chickweed)
Cerastium glomeratum (Sticky mouse-ear chickweed)
Corrigiola litoralis subsp. foliosa (Strapwort)
Dianthus broteri (Fringed pink)
Dianthus caryophyllus (Clove pink; Carnation)
Herniaria lusitanica subsp. lusitanica (Southern rupture-wort)
Minuartia geniculata (Pink sandwort)
Minuartia hybrida subsp. hybrida (Fine-leaved sandwort)
Paronychia argentea (Silver paronychia)
Petrorhagia nanteuilii (Proliferous pink; Childling pink)
Petrorhagia velutina (Hairy pink)

Polycarpon tetraphyllum (Four-leaved all-seed)
Sagina apetala subsp. apetala (Common or Annual pearlwort)
Sagina maritima (Sea pearlwort)
Saponaria officinalis (Soapwort)
Silene colorata (Pink Mediterranean catchfly)
Silene gallica (Small-flowered catchfly)
Silene latifolia subsp. latifolia (White campion)
Silene littorea (Shore campion)
Silene nicaeensis (Sticky catchfly)
Silene nocturna subsp. nocturna (Night catchfly)
Silene obtusifolia (Blunt-Leaved catchfly)
Silene tomentosa (Gibraltar campion)
Silene vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (Bladder campion)
Spergula arvensis (Corn spurrey)
Spergularia fimbriata (Fringed spurrey)
Spergularia salina (Sea spurrey)
Stellaria media subsp. media (Chickweed)
Stellaria pallida (Lesser chickweed)

TAMARICACEAE

Tamarix gallica (Tamarisk)
Tamarix parviflora (Small-flowered tamarisk)

FRANKENIACEAE

Frankenia laevis (Sea heath)

CACTACEAE

Opuntia bergeriana (Red-flowered Prickly Pear)

Opuntia ficus-indica (Prickly pear; Barbary fig)
Opuntia vulgaris (Prostrate cactus)

PLUMBAGINACEAE

Limonium emarginatum (Gibraltar sea lavender)
Limonium sinuatum (Winged sea lavender)

Order: Ranunculales

RANUNCULACEAE

Clematis cirrhosa (Virgin’s bower; December clematis)
Clematis flammula (Fragrant clematis)
Delphinium nanum (Violet larkspur; Annual delphinium)
Delphinium pentagynum (Perennial delphinium)
Ranunculus paludosus (Jersey, or Fan-leaved buttercup)
Ranunculus bullatus (Bullate or Autumn buttercup)
Ranunculus ficaria subsp. ficariiformis (Lesser celandine)
Ranunculus muricatus (Spiny-fruited buttercup)
Ranunculus trilobus (Three-lobed buttercup)

PAPAVERACEAE

Glaucium flavum (Yellow horned poppy)
Papaver dubium (Long-headed poppy)
Papaver hybridum (Prickly round-headed poppy; Rough poppy)
Papaver rhoeas (Field, Corn, Red or Common poppy)
Papaver somniferum subsp. somniferum (Opium poppy)

FUMARIACEAE

Fumaria sepium (Coastal fumitory)
Fumaria agraria (Field fumitory)
Fumaria bastardii (Tall ramping fumitory)
Fumaria capreolata subsp. capreolata (Ramping fumitory)

 

Order: Laurales

LAURACEAE

Laurus nobilis (Laurel or Sweet bay)

 

Order: Brassicales

CAPPARACEAE

Capparis spinosa (Caper)

BRASSICACEAE

Biscutella megacarpaea (Biscutella)
Biscutella sempervirens (Lesser biscutella)
Brassica napus (Rape; Swede)
Cakile maritima subsp. maritima (Sea rocket)
Capsella rubella (Lesser or Pink shepherd’s-purse)
Cardamine hirsuta (Hairy bitter-cress)
Coronopus didymus (Lesser swine-cress)
Coronopus squamatus (Swine-cress; Wart-cress)
Diplotaxis siifolia (Hairy wall-rocket)
Hirschfeldia incana subsp. incana (Hoary mustard)
Iberis gibraltarica (Gibraltar candytuft)
Lobularia maritima (Sweet Alison)
Malcolmia littorea (Silver sea stock)
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. raphanistrum (Wild radish)
Rapistrum rugosum subsp. rugosum (Bastard cabbage)
Sinapis alba (White mustard)
Sisymbrium irio (London rocket)
Sisymbrium officinale (Hedge mustard)
Succowia balearica (Succowia)

RESEDACEAE

Reseda luteola (Weld, Dyer’s rocket)
Reseda alba (Upright or White mignonette)
Reseda lutea (Wild mignonette)
Reseda media (Intermediate mignonette)

TROPAEOLACEAE

Tropaeolum majus (Nasturtium)

 

Order: Saxifragales

CRASSULACEAE

Aeonium arboreum (Tree houseleek)
Aeonium haworthii (Pink houseleek)
Kalanchoe delagoensis (Chandelier Plant)
Sedum album (White stonecrop)
Sedum rubens (Red stonecrop)
Sedum sediforme (Yellow stonecrop)
Umbilicus horizontalis (Horizontal navelwort)
Umbilicus rupestris (Wall pennywort; Navelwort)

SAXIFRAGACEAE

Saxifraga globulifera var. gibraltarica (Gibraltar saxifrage)

Order: Fabales

FABACEAE

Acacia saligna (Blue-Leaved wattle)
Acacia cyclops (Red-eyed acacia)
Anagyris foetida (Bean trefoil)
Anthyllis hamosa (Yellow sand vetch)
Anthyllis tetraphylla (Bladder vetch)
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. maura (Kidney vetch)
Astragalus baeticus (Southern milk-vetch)
Astragalus hamosus (Horned milk-vetch)
Biserrula pelecinus (Biserrula)
Calicotome villosa (Spiny broom)
Ceratonia siliqua (Carob; Locust tree)

Coronilla dura (Stiff scorpion vetch)
Coronilla valentina subsp. glauca (Shrubby scorpion vetch)
Dorycnium rectum (Dorycnium)
Galega officinalis (Goat’s rue; French lilac)
Genista monspessulana (Shrubby teline)
Genista linifolia (Teline; Southern whin)
Hedysarum coronarium (Italian sainfoin)
Hippocrepis multisiliquosa (Horseshoe vetch)
Lathyrus amphicarpos (Winged scarlet vetchling)
Lathyrus annuus (Annual yellow vetchling)
Lathyrus aphaca (Yellow vetchling)
Lathyrus clymenum (Perennial pea)
Lathyrus setifolius (Narrow-leaved red vetchling)
Lathyrus tingitanus (Tangier pea; Southern vetchling)
Lotus arenarius (Sand birdsfoot trefoil)
Lotus collinus (Common birdsfoot trefoil)
Lotus creticus (Southern birdsfoot trefoil)
Lotus edulis (Edible birdsfoot trefoil)
Lotus ornithopodioides (Birdsfoot trefoil)
Lotus parviflorus (Small-flowered birdsfoot trefoil)
Lupinus angustifolius (Narrow-leaved lupin)
Medicago arabica (Spotted medick)
Medicago intertexta (Interlocking medick)
Medicago littoralis (Shore medick)
Medicago lupulina (Black medick)
Medicago marina (Sea medick)
Medicago minima (Small or Bur medick)
Medicago murex (Purple medick)
Medicago orbicularis (Large disk medick)
Medicago polymorpha subsp. polymorpha (Hairy or Toothed medick)
Medicago tornata (Dark medick)
Medicago truncatula (Stout-spined medick)
Melilotus indica (Small-flowered melilot)
Melilotus segetalis (Field melilot)
Melilotus sulcata (Furrowed melilot)
Ononis cossoniana (Coastal restharrow)
Ononis dentata (Toothed small restharrow)
Ononis mitissima (Soft restharrow)
Ononis natrix subsp. ramosissima var. ramosissima (Gibraltar restharrow)
Ononis pubescens (Hairy restharrow)
Ononis reclinata (Small restharrow)

Ononis variegata (Sand restharrow)
Ononis viscosa subsp. subcordata (Sticky restharrow)
Ornithopus compressus (Compressed bird’s-foot)
Ornithopus pinnatus (Orange bird’s-foot)
Paraserianthes lophantha (Cape wattle; Swamp wattle)

Pisum sativum subsp. sativum (Wild pea)
Psoralea bituminosa (Pitch trefoil, Bitumen pea)
Retama monosperma (White Broom)
Scorpiurus vermiculatus (Warty scorpiurus)
Scorpiurus muricatus (Scorpiurus)
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)
Tetragonolobus purpureus (Winged or Asparagus pea)
Trifolium angustifolium (Narrow-leaved crimson clover)
Trifolium arvense (Hare’s-foot clover)
Trifolium campestre (Hop trefoil, Yellow field clover)
Trifolium cherleri (Hairy trefoil)

Trifolium fragiferum (Strawberry Clover)
Trifolium glomeratum (Clustered clover)
Trifolium isthmocarpon (Pink trefoil)
Trifolium lappaceum (Bud-like trefoil)
Trifolium ligusticum (Italian trefoil)
Trifolium nigrescens subsp. nigrescens (Lesser white trefoil)
Trifolium pallidum (Pale trefoil)
Trifolium pratense (Red clover)
Trifolium repens subsp. repens (White clover)
Trifolium resupinatum (Reversed clover)
Trifolium scabrum (Rough trefoil)
Trifolium squamosum (Sea clover)
Trifolium stellatum (Star clover)
Trifolium subterraneum (Subterranean clover)
Trifolium tomentosum (Woolly trefoil)
Vicia benghalensis (Reddish tufted vetch)
Vicia cracca subsp. cracca (Tufted vetch)
Vicia laxiflora (Slender tare)
Vicia lutea subsp. lutea (Yellow vetch)
Vicia sativa subsp. cordata (Common vetch )
Vicia villosa subsp. pseudocracca (Pale violet or Fodder vetch)

POLYGALACEAE

Polygala rupestris (Rock milkwort)

 

Order: Oxalidales

OXALIDACEAE

Oxalis articulata (Pink oxalis)
Oxalis corniculata (Procumbent yellow sorrel)
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup; Cape sorrel)

 

Order: Geraniales

GERANIACEAE

Erodium aethiopicum subsp. pilosum (Coastal storksbill)
Erodium botrys (Great storksbill)
Erodium chium subsp. chium (Greater soft storksbill)
Erodium laciniatum (Sand storksbill)
Erodium malacoides (Soft or Mallow-leaved storksbill)
Erodium moschatum (Musk storksbill)
Erodium primulaceum (Early storksbill)
Geranium dissectum (Cut-leaved cranesbill)
Geranium molle (Dove’s-foot cranesbill)
Geranium purpureum (Lesser herb robert; Little robin)
Geranium rotundifolium (Round-leaved cranesbill)
Pelargonium inquinans (Pelargonium)

 

Order: Zygopyllales

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE

Tribulus terrestris (Maltese cross, Small caltrops)

 

Order: Malpighiales

LINACEAE

Linum bienne (Pale flax)
Linum strictum subsp. strictum (Upright yellow flax)

EUPHORBIACEAE

Eurphobia baetica (Southern spurge)
Euphorbia characias subsp. characias (Large Mediterranean spurge)
Euphorbia exigua (Dwarf spurge)
Euphorbia helioscopia (Sun spurge)
Euphorbia medicaginea (Field spurge)
Euphorbia peplus (Petty spurge)
Euphorbia pterococca (Winged spurge)
Euphorbia segetalis var. pinea (Corn spurge)
Euphorbia serpens (Matted sandmat)

Euphorbia squamigera (Warty spurge)
Euphorbia terracina (Narrow-leaved spurge)
Mercurialis annua subsp. ambigua (Annual mercury)
Ricinus communis (Castor oil plant)

CLUSIACEAE

Hypericum perforatum (Common or Perforate St. John’s wort)

 

Order: Sapindales

RUTACEAE

Ruta angustifolia (Narrow-leaved fringed rue)

SIMAROUBACEAE

Ailanthus altissima (Tree of heaven)

ANACARDIACEAE

Pistacia lentiscus (Mastic tree; Lentisc)
Pistacia terebinthus (Turpentine tree; Terebinth)
Schinus molle (Californian pepper tree; Peruvian mastic tree)

 

Order:Vitales

VITACEAE

Vitis vinifera (Vine)

 

Order: Malvales

MALVACEAE

Lavatera arborea (Tree mallow)
Lavatera cretica (Lesser tree mallow)

Lavatera mauritanica subsp. davaei (Moroccan mallow)
Lavatera trimestris (Annual lavatera)
Malva hispanica (Spanish mallow)
Malva parviflora (Lesser or Least mallow)
Malva sylvestris (Common mallow)

THYMELAEACEAE

Daphne gnidium (Mediterranean mezereon)

CISTACEAE

Cistus albidus (Grey-leaved cistus)
Cistus salvifolius (Sage-leaved cistus)
Helianthemum origanifolium subsp. origanifolium (Yellow rockrose)

Order: Curcubitales

CUCURBITACEAE

Ecballium elaterium (Squirting cucumber)

 

Order: Myrtales

LYTHRACEAE

Lythrum junceum (Marsh loosetrife)

MYRTACEAE

Corymbia ficifolia (Red-flowering Gum)

Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Red gum)
Eucalyptus globulus (Blue gum)

ONAGRACEAE

Oenothera erythrosepala (Large-flowered evening primrose)
Oenothera rosea (Pink evening primrose)

 

Order: Apiales

ARALIACEAE

Hedera helix subsp. helix (Ivy)

APIACEAE

Apium nodiflorum (Fool’s water-cress)
Bupleurum fruticosum (Shrubby hare’s-ear; Shrubby thorow-wax )
Cachrys libanotis (Sand cachrys)
Crithmum maritimum (Rock samphire)
Daucus carota subsp. maximus (Wild carrot)
Daucus carota subsp. hispanicus (Wild carrot)
Elaeoselinum foetidum (Elaeoselinum)
Eryngium maritimum (Sea holly)
Ferula tingitana (Giant tangier fennel)
Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Bitter fennel)
Kundmannia sicula (Kundmannia)
Magydaris panacifolia (Magydaris)
Petroselinum crispum (Parsley)
Scandix pecten-veneris subsp. pectin-veneris (Shepherd’s needle)
Smyrnium olusatrum (Alexanders)
Thapsia villosa (Thapsia)
Torilis arvensis subsp. neglecta (Spreading hedge-parsley)
Torilis nodosa (Knotted hedge-parsley)

 

Order: Ericales

MYRSINACEAE

Anagallis arvensis (Scarlet pimpernel; Blue pimpernel)

PRIMULACEAE


Samolus valerandi (Brookweed)

Order: Lamiales

OLEACEAE

Fraxinus angustifolia (Narrow-leaved ash)
Jasminum fruticans (Wild jasmine; Shrubby jasmine)
Olea europaea (Wild olive)
Phillyrea latifolia (Phillyrea)

VERBENACEAE

Lantana camara (Lantana)
Verbena officinalis (Vervain)

LAMIACEAE

Ajuga iva (Lesser ground pine)
Calamintha sylvatica subsp. ascendens (Wood calamint)
Lavandula dentata (Toothed lavender)
Lavandula multifida (Cut-leaved lavender)
Mentha suaveolens (Apple mint; Round-leaved mint)
Micromeria graeca subsp. graeca (Micromeria)
Nepeta tuberosa subsp. tuberosa (Greater catmint)
Phlomis purpurea (Purple Jerusalem sage)
Prasium majus (Prasium)
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Salvia verbenaca (Wild clary)
Sideritis arborescens subsp. arborescens (Shrubby siderites)
Stachys arvensis (Field woundwort)
Stachys circinata (Soft woundwort)
Stachys ocymastrum (Yellow woundwort)
Teucrium fruticans (Tree or Shrubby germander)
Teucrium lusitanicum (Felty germander)
Thymus willdenowii (Gibraltar thyme)

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Antirrhinum majus subsp. cirrhigerum (Snapdragon)
Antirrhinum majus subsp. tortuosum (Snapdragon)
Bellardia trixago (Bellardia)
Chaenorrhinum villosum subsp. villosum (Hairy toadflax)
Cymbalaria muralis subsp. muralis (Ivy-leaved toadflax)
Linaria amethystea subsp. amethystea (Spanish toadflax)
Linaria pedunculata (Branched toadflax)
Linaria tristis (Melancholy toadflax)
Misopates orontium (Weasel’s snout)
Parentucellia viscosa (Yellow bartsia)
Scrophularia laevigata (Loose-flowered figwort)
Scrophularia sambucifolia subsp. sambucifolia (Elder-leaved figwort)
Verbascum giganteum subsp. martinezii (Giant or Large-flowered mullein)
Verbascum sinuatum (Wavy-leaved mullein)
Veronica arvensis (Wall speedwell)
Veronica cymbalaria (Pale speedwell)

ACANTHACEAE

Acanthus mollis subsp. platyphyllos (Bear’s breech)

OROBANCHACEAE

Orobanche amethystea (Amethyst broomrape)
Orobanche crenata (Bean broomrape)
Orobanche minor (Lesser or Common broomrape)
Orobanche ramosa subsp. nana (Branched broomrape)
Orobanche sanguinea (Blood-red broomrape)

PLANTAGINACEAE

Plantago serraria (Saw-toothed plantain)
Plantago afra (Branched plantain)
Plantago coronopus subsp. coronopus (Buck’s-horn plantain)
Plantago lagopus (Hare’s-foot plantain)
Plantago major subsp. major (Greater plantain)

MYOPORACEAE

Myoporum laetum(Myoporum, Waterbush)

 

Order: Gentianales

GENTIANACEAE

Blackstonia perfoliata subsp. perfoliata (Yellow wort)
Centaurium erythraea subsp. erythraea (Common centaury)
Centaurium pulchellum (Lesser centaury)

APOCYNACEAE

Gomphocarpus fruticosus (Bristly-fruited silkweed)

Nerium oleander (Oleander)
Vinca difformis
subsp. difformis (Intermediate periwinkle)

 

RUBIACEAE

Crucianella maritima (Coastal crucianella)
Galium aparine (Goosegrass; Cleavers)
Galium murale (Wall bedstraw)
Galium verrucosum (Warty bedstraw)
Rubia peregrina (Wild madder)
Sherardia arvensis (Field madder)

Theligonum cynocrambe (Theligonum)
Valantia hispida (Hairy valantia)
Valantia muralis (Horned valantia)

 

Order: Solanales

CONVOLVULACEAE

Calystegia sepium (Greater or Hedge bindweed; Bellvine)
Convolvulus althaeoides subsp. althaeoides (Mallow-leaved bindweed)
Convolvulus arvensis (Field bindweed)
Convolvulus siculus subsp. siculus (Small blue convolvulus)
Convolvulus tricolor subsp. tricolor (Dwarf or Annual convolvulus)
Cuscuta planiflora (Dodder)

Ipomoea purpurea (Morning glory)

SOLANACEAE

Cestrum parqui (Cestrum)
Datura innoxia (Greater thorn apple)
Datura stramonium (Thorn apple)
Hyoscyamus albus (White henbane)
Nicotiana glauca (Shrub tobacco)
Solanum alatum (Orange nightshade)
Solanum nigrum subsp. nigrum (Black nightshade)
Solanum sodomeum (Apple of Sodom)
Solanum villosum (Hairy nightshade)

 

Order: Boraginales

BORAGINACEAE

Anchusa azurea (Large blue alkanet)
Borago officinalis (Borage)
Cerinthe gymnandra (Honeywort)
Echium boissieri (Candle bugloss)
Echium creticum subsp. coincyanum (Bristly or rough bugloss)
Echium gaditanum (Coastal bugloss)
Echium parviflorum (Small-flowered bugloss)
Echium plantagineum (Purple viper’s bugloss)
Heliotropium europaeum (Heliotrope)
Omphalodes linifolia (Venus’ navel-wort; Annual omphalodes)

Order: Dipsacales

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

Lonicera implexa (Honeysuckle)

VALERIANACEAE

Centranthus calcitrapae subsp. calcitrapae (Cut-leaved valerian)
Centranthus ruber subsp. ruber (Red valerian)
Fedia cornucopiae (Fedia)

DIPSACACEAE

Cephalaria leucantha (Cephalaria)
Pycnocomon rutifolium (Pycnocomon)
Scabiosa atropurpurea (Sweet scabious, Mournful widow)

 

Order: Asterales

CAMPANULACEAE

Campanula erinus
(Annual bellflower)
Campanula lusitanica (Southern bellflower)
Campanula rapunculus (Rampion)
Campanula velutina (Soft or Fragile bellflower)
Jasione montana subsp. blepharodon (Sheep’s bit)
Trachelium caeruleum subsp. caeruleum (Throatwort)

ASTERACEAE

Achillea maritima (Cottonweed)
Ageratina altissima (White snakeroot; Snow thoroughwort)

Anacyclus clavatus (White anacyclus)
Anacyclus radiatus (Yellow anacyclus)
Andryala integrifolia (Rabbits’ Bread)
Anthemis arvensis (Corn chamomile)
Arctotheca calendula (Cape weed)
Asteriscus aquaticus (Lesser sea daisy)
Atractylis cancellata (Atractylis)
Bellis sylvestris (Southern daisy)
Bidens aurea (Golden bur-marigold)
Bidens pilosa (Lesser bur-marigold)
Calendula arvensis subsp. arvensis (Field marigold)
Calendula incana subsp. algarbiensis (Rock marigold)
Calendula incana subsp. incana (Hairy rock marigold)
Carduus pycnocephalus (Plymouth thistle)
Carduus tenuiflorus (Slender thistle)
Carlina hispanica (Flat-topped carline thistle)
Carlina racemosa (Branched carline thistle)
Carthamus arborescens (Yellow tree thistle)
Carthamus creticus (Woolly carthamus)
Centaurea calcitrapa (Star thistle; Red star thistle)
Centaurea melitensis (Maltese star thistle)
Centaurea pullata subsp. pullata (Iberian knapweed)
Centaurea seridis (Silver knapweed)
Chamaemelum fuscatum (Dark chamomile)
Chondrilla juncea (Chondrilla, Skeleton weed)
Cichorium intybus (Chicory, Wild succory)
Cichorium pumilum (Wild endive)

Cladanthus arabicus (Cladanthus)

Cladanthus mixtus (Mixed chamomile)
Crepis capillaris (Smooth hawksbeard)
Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Beaked hawksbeard)
Cynara humilis (Lesser artichoke)

Cynara scolymus (Artichoke)
Dittrichia viscosa subsp. viscosa (Aromatic inula)
Erigeron sumatrensis (White horseweed)
Erigeron bonariensis (Horseweed)
Erigeron canadensis (Canadian fleabane)
Filago gallica (Narrow-leaved cudweed)

Filago pygmaea (Pygmy cudweed)
Filago pyramidata (Broad-leaved cudweed)
Galactites tomentosus (Galactites)

Glebionis coronaria (Crown Daisy)
Gnaphalium falcatum (Gamochaeta)

Laphangium luteoalbum (Jersey cudweed)
Hedypnois arenaria (Sand hedypnois)
Hedypnois rhagadioloides (Hedypnois)
Helichrysum boissieri (Wall helichrysum)
Helminthotheca echioides (Bristly Ox-Tongue)

Hyoseris radiata subsp. radiata (Hyoseris)
Hyoseris scabra (Lesser hyoseris)
Hypochaeris salzmanniana (Sand catsear)
Lactuca serriola (Prickly lettuce)
Lactuca tenerrima (Pale blue lettuce)
Leontodon saxatilis subsp. rothii (Hairy Hawkbit)
Mantisalca salmantica (Mantisalca)
Pallenis maritima (Sea daisy)

Pallenis spinosa subsp. spinosa (Spiny daisy)
Phagnalon saxatile (Rock phagnalon)
Pulicaria odora (Fleabane)
Pulicaria arabica subsp. hispanica (Marsh fleabane)
Reichardia gaditana (Sand reichardia)
Reichardia intermedia (Intermediate reichardia)
Reichardia picroides (Common or Annual reichardia)
Scolymus hispanicus (Spanish oyster plant)
Senecio angulatus (Climbing groundsel)

Senecio cineraria (Cineraria; Silver ragwort)
Senecio jacobaea (Ragwort)
Senecio leucanthemifolius (Coastal ragwort)
Senecio vulgaris (Groundsel)
Silybum marianum (Milk or holy thistle)
Sonchus asper subsp. asper (Prickly sow-thistle)
Sonchus bulbosus subsp. bulbosus (Bulbous sow-thistle)

Sonchus oleraceus (Smooth or Common sow-thistle)
Sonchus tenerrimus (Slender sow-thistle)
Symphyotrichum squamatum (Squamate aster)

Tolpis barbata (Tolpis or European umbrella milkwort))
Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. porrifolius (Salsify)
Urospermum picroides (Urospermum)
Xanthium spinosum (Spiny cocklebur)
Xanthium orientale subsp. italicum (Cocklebur; Rough cocklebur)

 

Class: Monocotyledones

Order: Liliales

LILIACEAE

Fritillaria lusitanica (Southern fritillary)

SMILACACEAE

Smilax aspera (Rough smilax)

COLCHICACEAE

Colchicum lusitanum (Southern or Autumn colchicum)

 

Order: Asparagales

ASPHODELACEAE

Aloe arborescens (Tree aloe)

Aloe brevifolia (Short leaf aloe)

Aloe maculata (Soap aloe)
Asphodelus albus subsp. villarsii (White asphodel)
Asphodelus fistulosus (Hollow-stemmed asphodel)

Asphodelus ramosus (Branched asphodel)

HYACINTHACEAE

Dipcadi serotinum subsp. serotinum (Brown bluebell)

Hyacinthoides hispanica (Spanish Bluebell)

Muscari comosum (Tassel hyacinth)
Muscari parviflorum (Autumn Grape Hyacinth)

Ornithogalum arabicum (Greater star-of-Bethlehem)
Ornithogalum narbonense (Narbonne Star of Bethlehem)

Ornithogalum orthophyllum subsp. baeticum (Star-of-Bethlehem)

Scilla autumnalis (Autumn squill)
Scilla peruviana (Giant squill)

Urginea maritima (Sea squill)

ALLIACEAE

Allium ampeloprasum (Great round-headed leek; Wild leek)
Allium pallens subsp. pallens (Pale garlic)
Allium roseum (Rose garlic)
Allium sphaerocephalon subsp. sphaerocephalon (Round-headed leek)
Allium triquetrum (Triquetrous garlic; Three-cornered leek)
Nothoscordum inodorum (Fragrant garlic)


ASPARAGACEAE

Asparagus albus (Wild or White asparagus)
Asparagus aphyllus (Green-stemmed asparagus)
Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal creeper)

RUSCACEAE

Ruscus aculeatus (Butcher’s broom)
Ruscus hypophyllum (Southern butcher’s broom)

AGAVACEAE

Agave americana (Century plant)
Agave ghiesbreghtii (Green century plant)
Dracaena drago (Dragon tree)

AMARYLLIDACEAE

Amaryllis bella-donna (Belladonna lily; Amaryllis)
Leucojum autumnale (Autumn snowflake)
Narcissus papyraceus subsp. papyraceus (Paper-white narcissus)
Narcissus tazetta subsp. tazetta (Polyanthus narcissus; Rose of Sharon)
Pancratium maritimum (Sea daffodil)

IRIDACEAE

Anomatheca laxa (False freesia; Pink bermudiana)

Chasmanthe floribunda subsp. floribunda (Chasmanthe)
Crocus serotinus subsp. salzmannii (Southern autumn crocus)
Freesia refracta (Freesia)
Gladiolus communis subsp. byzantinus (Common gladiolus)
Gynandriris sisyrinchium (Barbary nut)
Iris albicans (White iris)
Iris filifolia (Narrow-leaved purple iris)
Iris foetidissima (Stinking iris; Gladdon)
Romulea clusiana (Romulea)

ORCHIDACEAE

Anacamptis pyramidalis (Pyramidal orchid)
Gennaria diphylla (Two-leaved gennaria)
Ophrys apifera subsp. apifera (Bee orchid)
Ophrys bombyliflora (Bumble bee orchid)
Ophrys fusca subsp. fusca (Brown bee orchid; Sombre bee orchid)
Ophrys lutea subsp. lutea (Yellow bee orchid)
Ophrys speculum subsp. speculum (Mirror orchid; Mirror of Venus)
Ophrys tenthredinifera (Saw-fly orchid)
Serapias parviflora (Small-flowered serapias; Small tongue orchid)
Spiranthes spiralis (Autumn lady’s tresses orchid)

 

Order:Dioscoreales

DIOSCOREACEAE

Tamus communis (Black bryony)

Order: Poales

GRAMINEAE (POACEAE)

Aegilops geniculata (Ovate goat grass or Aegilops)
Arundo donax (Giant reed; Cane)
Avena barbata subsp. barbata (Bearded wild oat)
Avena sterilis subsp. sterilis (Animated or Winter wild oat)
Avenula gervaisii subsp. arundana (Avenula)
Brachypodium distachyon (Spiky false-brome)
Brachypodium retusum (Mediterranean false-brome)
Briza maxima (Large quaking grass)
Briza minor (Small quaking grass)
Bromus diandrus (Great brome)
Bromus hordeaceus (Soft brome)
Bromus madritensis (Compact brome)
Bromus rigidus (Upright or stiff brome)
Bromus unioloides (Rescue brome)
Cutandia maritima (Cutandia)
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)
Cynosurus echinatus (Rough dog’s-tail)
Dactylis glomerata (Cock’s-foot)
Desmazeria marina (Sea fern-grass; Stiff sand-grass)
Desmazeria rigida subsp. rigida (Fern-grass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (Hairy finger-grass)
Echinochloa crus-galli (Cockspur grass)
Elymus farctus (Sand couch)

Gastridium ventricosum (Nit-grass)
Hordeum leporinum (Wall barley)
Hyparrhenia hirta subsp. villosa (Hyparrhenia)
Lagurus ovatus (Hare’s-tail)
Lamarckia aurea (Golden dog’s-tail)
Lolium rigidum (Stiff darnel; Stiff rye-grass)
Melica arrecta (Greater melick)
Melica magnolii (Hairy melick)
Melica minuta (Lesser melick)
Panicum repens (Creeping millet)
Parapholis filiformis (Slender sea hard-grass)
Parapholis incurva (Curved sea hard-grass)
Paspalum dilatatum (Greater millet grass)
Paspalum paspalodes (Millet grass)
Pennisetum clandestinum (Pennisetum)
Pennisetum villosum (Pennisetum)
Phalaris canariensis (Canary-grass)

Phalaris minor (Lesser Canary-grass)
Phragmites australis (Common reed)
Piptatherum coerulescens (Black piptatherum)
Piptatherum miliaceum (Slender piptatherum)
Poa annua (Annual meadow-grass)
Poa infirma (Early meadow-grass)
Polypogon monspeliensis (Annual beard-grass)

Polypogon viridis (Water-bent Grass)
Rostraria cristata (Crested hair-grass)
Setaria adhaerens (Bristle grass)

Setaria verticillata x S. viridis (Rough x Green bristle grass)
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass)
Sporobulus pungens (Sporobulus)
Stipa tenacissima (Esparto grass)
Stipa capensis (Mediterranean needle-grass)
Trisetaria panicea (Oat-grass)
Vulpia alopecuros (Sand fescue)
Vulpia ciliata (Bearded fescue)
Vulpia geniculata (Jointed fescue)

JUNCACEAE

Juncus bufonius (Toad rush)

CYPERACEAE

Carex hallerana (Rock sedge)
Cyperus capitatus (Sand sedge)
Cyperus longus (Galingale)
Cyperus rotundus (Rounded sedge)
Scirpus holoschoenus (Round-headed club-rush)

 

Order: Arecales

ARECACEAE

Chamaerops humilis (Dwarf fan palm)
Phoenix canariensis (Canary palm)

 

Order: Alismatales

ARACEAE

Arisarum simorrhinum (Friar’s cowl)
Arum italicum subsp. italicum (Italian arum)
Dracunculus vulgaris (Dragon arum)

 

 

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